Developed countries have accumulated experiences in regulating biotechnology, including gene technology, ranging from voluntary to legally binding measures; from sectoral to holistic approaches.

The challenge for developing countries and countries with economies in transition is to build on existing experiences, identifying their strengths and weaknesses, and taking into full account the growing body, and gaps, in scientific and socio-economic knowledge of biosafety and biotechnology.

A holistic and comprehensive regulatory approach to ensure biosafety would be based on the precautionary principle, covering the entire range of activities from research and development of GMOs to their commercialization, and post-release monitoring.

Sound science draws a clear line between ?containment? and ?release? so that an activity whereby a GMO or parts thereof comes into contact with the environment will be classified as a release. Regulations and measures for release will then apply.

Information disclosure to the public generates feedback, including scientific and technical inputs from independent scientists and researchers in the field of biosafety, which is crucial for sound regulation.

There are ongoing discussions in many countries and at the regional and international level on the scope of information that should be disclosed to the public. Technology developers and private biotechnology companies are claiming broader protection of data, beyond that of traditional trade secrets and confidential business information. The provision of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety for claims to ?confidential information?, if inappropriately implemented, can deprive the public of necessary information to ensure biosafety.

National regulations will thus need to ensure information disclosure, from both the private and public sector technology developers.

Greenpeace Analysis of Industry’s Revised Proposed ‘Compact’

This is an analysis of Industry’s proposal of a contractual compensation agreement (a “Compact”), aimed as an alternative to the compensation funds and financial security requirements under discussion in the liability and redress negotiations. […]

Liability: What to do when Risk turns into Damage?

An insight into the process and the course of the negotiations of Article 27 of the Cartagena Protocal on Liability and Redress. […]

Documents for Liability and Redress Meeting, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Documents produced for the 5th meeting of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts on Liability and Redress in the context of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety […]

Explanatory Documents on the Biosafety Liability and Redress Negotiations

A Greenpeace backgrounder on the biosafety liability and redress discussions in preparation for 4th meeting of the Working Group on Liability and Redress of the Cartagena Protocol […]

The theory and practice of European traceability regulations for genetically modified food and feed

Due to demand from the European people, the European Community has responded by providing a complex set of EC Regulations on GMO traceability, detection and labelling, to provide information to the public about the food they are eating […]

What is the future of GMO detection? A freely speaking scientist ‘s opinion

An interview with Dr. Arne Holst-Jensen, Norwegian researcher and expert for GMO detection methods on the future of GMO detection. […]

Amendment to the Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters

The amendment to the Aarhus Convention concerning public participation in decision-making on genetically modified organisms was adopted at the second meeting of the Parties to the Convention in September 2005. […]

Developing a Liability and Redress Regime under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

The paper sets out the broad principles of State responsibility for environmental harm and identifies the possible main elements that could be included in a liability and redress regime to be developed under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. […]

Uso y abuso del principio Precautorio

Dr Peter Saunders, Prof of Mathematics at King’s College, London provides a clear and common sense approach to understanding the precautionary principle. This understanding is crucial in the light of the Biosafety Protocol. […]

Public Participation and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

This study looks at public participation in the development of National Biosafety Frameworks. […]